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The first method is simulation-based virtual reality. Driving simulators, for example, give the driver on board the impression that he/she is actually driving an actual vehicle by predicting vehicular motion caused by driver input and feeding back corresponding visual, motion, audio and proprioceptive cues to the driver. The simulator normally consists of several systems as follows: a real-time vehicle simulation system performing real-time simulation of vehicle dynamics; motion, visual and audio systems reproducing vehicle motion, driving environment scenes and noise sensed by a driver during driving; a control force roading system acting as an interface between the driver and the simulator; an operator console for monitoring system operation; and system integration managing information and data transfer among subsystems and synchronization. The driving simulators have been used effectively for vehicle system development, safety improvement and human factor study.